THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE IN THE 19TH CENTURY: FROM TANZIMAT TO NATIONALISMS
Teaching Staff: Laiou Sophia
Course Code: ΙΟΘ201
Course Type: Compulsory Elective
Course Level: Undergraduate
Course Language: Greek
Delivery method: In the classroom
The course examines the historical development of the Ottoman Empire during the long 19th century. The following topics are examined: the reformative policies (Tanzimat) and the westernization of the Ottoman society and their impact in higher and lower social strata with special reference to the Greek Orthodox millet; the economic policy of the Ottoman empire and the role of the Great Powers in it; the political and ideological discourse and its impact on Muslim and non-Muslim subjects; intercommunal conflicts.
Objectives - Learning Outcomes:
The course aims to the familiarization of the students with the developments that shaped the political and social scenery of Turkey. After the successful completion of the course, the students will be able to understand the developments in the Middle East and Balkans.
1st week: the ottoman empire in the beginning pf the 19th century. The reformative policies of Selim III. From Selim III to Mahmud II. Internal policy: the abolition of the janissaries’ force; the beginning of Tanzimat and problems in their implementation. Foreign policy: the Egyptian crisis- the Balkan nationalisms.
2nd week: The era of Tanzimat (1839-1871): internal political situation; reforms in army, state bureaucracy, education system, law, provincial administration, taxation.
3rd week: foreign policy: end of the Egyptian crisis, Crimean war, the Eastern question; reactions against Tanzimat; the New Ottomans.
4th week: the crisis between 1873-1878; the Ottoman constitution of 1876; war with Russia; the treaty of Saint Stephan; the treaty of Berlin.
5th week: the reign of Abdülhamit II, continuities and discontinuities with the Tanzimat era; ideological trends; the Armenian massacres and the Macedonian question.
6th week: the ottoman economy: public debt and investments.
7th week: 1908-1918: Young Turks and their revolution; political conflicts.
8th week: Eastern question and the Balkan wars; the Ottoman empire in the first World War.
9th week: Orthodox millet, the role of the Orthodox Patriarchate of Constantinople, the Rums between westernization and nationalism.
10th week: the ideological conflicts- the Armenian genocide.
11th week:1918-1927: the Turkish nationalistic aspirations; the Asia Minor war and the Turkish resistance; the role of Mustafa Kemal; establishment of the Turkish Republic; the reforms of Mustafa Kemal.
12th week: Turkey and the Middle East after 1923.
13th week: synopsis.
Zürcher, Σύγχρονη ιστορία της Τουρκίας [The Modern History of Turkey], Αθήνα 2004. D. Quataert, Η οθωμανική αυτοκρατορία. Οι τελευταίοι αιώνες, 1700-1922[ The Ottoman Empire; the Last Centuries, 1700-1922] Αθήνα 2006. M.S.Hanioğlu, A Brief History of the Late Ottoman Empire, Princeton 2008. B.Lewis, Η ανάδυση της σύγχρονης Τουρκίας[Τhe Emergence of Modern Turkey], τ.1-2, Αθήνα 2002.
Teaching, use of power point, analysis of translated Ottoman sources.
Written exams. The students also can write a paper.